Brief History of the Russian School of Transdisciplinarity
“Russian School of Transdisciplinarity” took its name neither from a certain ethnic group nor from the government, but it was established based on a set of special geographical and meaningful principles. This enables any specialist and scientist of any nationality and citizenship to consider themselves a part of the Russian school of transdisciplinarity as long as they view transdisciplinarity as a separate scientific discipline as it was initially portrayed by Jean Piaget and Erich Jantsch.
Scientists, professors and organizers of educational process participated actively at different periods during discussion of concepts of transdisciplinarity-4. They were representatives of Russian universities of Higher Education: the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow State University of Management, the Bauman State Technical University, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Kabardino-Balkarian State University (Nalchik) and also some specialized state and non-state scientific institutions. Major concepts of transdisciplinarity were discussed by S. Amonashvili, Doctor of pedagogic sciences, E. Borovkov, Doctor of technical sciences, V. Volchenko, Doctor of Technical sciences, V. Eryomenko, Doctor of technical sciences, E. Zorina, PhD, U. Ivanov, Cand. Sc. (Physics and Mathematics), Doctor of Technical Sciences, B. Karamurzov, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, M. Kefererova, Doctor of Biologics, N. Lebedeva, MD, M. Mokiy, Doctor of Economics, V. Nalimov, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, A. Nikiforov, PhD, A. Tamrazya, Doctor of technical science, D. Khomyakov, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, A. Alpeev, Cand. Sc. (Technical Sciences), V. Artyukhova, Cand. Sc. (Biologics), N. Vinogradova, Cand. Sc. (Pedagogic Science), N. Gadzhieva, Cand. Sc. (Pedagogic Sciences), L. Klochkova, Cand. Sc. (Physics and Mathematics) , V. Kiselev, Cand. Sc.(Medical Sciences). N. Kislinskaya, Cand. Sc. (Pedagogoc), Y. Lobanov, Cand. Sc. (Phylosophy), A. Putintsev, Cand. Sc. (Biologics),L. Shaposhnikova, Cand. Sc. (History), A. Shevchenko, Cand. Sc. (Pedagogic ), and E. Nesterov, a member of the Committee of Supreme Council of ecology and rational; usage of natural recourses in RF.
It is noteworthy contribution to the overall work of enthusiasts transdisciplinarity: A.Zhamborova, O.Shegay, N.Didenko, V.Vostrikov, S.Besedin, R.Bogaturov, L.Klimenko, S. Kunah and A.Gamurar.
There are some important periods of establishment and development of the Russian School of Transdisciplinarity:
An open scientific laboratory was established in 1990 in the city of Nalchik (Kabardino-Balcarian Republic). It was led by M. Kerefova, doctor of biological science (department chair of genetics in the biological department of Kabardino-Balcarian State University; V. Volchenko, professor at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University specialists of Department of “UNION-SCIENCE” in Moscow. Vladimmir Mokiy headed the laboratory. From the moment the laboratory was created it established a goal – to form a transdisciplinary approach of cognizing the outside world.
In 1993, on the foundation of the open scientific laboratory, a research laboratory was established and continued the research in the field. This laboratory was part of Ecological Center of International noncommercial Institute of informatics and biosphere under department of biology at the Lomonosow Moscow State University. The center was directed by V. Timofeev, doctor of Physics and Mathematics and lead by A. Putintsev, Candidate of biological sciences. Vladimir Mokiy headed the laboratory.
In the period from 1993 to 1996 the basic concepts of the transdisciplinary approach were formed and experimentally tested. The foundation of the experimental and factual testing of the transdisciplinary “units of order”, with the participation of biological test-subjects, was established by laboratory experiments conducted by the members of the biological damage laboratory in the hydrobiology department of the biology faculty of the Moscow State University by A. Putentsev, candidate of biological science, V. Artyuhkova, candidate of biological science and G. Lebedeva, candidate of biological science. The results of repeated experiments affirmed the theoretically predictive nature of influence of the ordered system of the medium on changes in quantity and state of biological test subjects. Schenedesmus quadricauda, a rapidly breeding green protocoññus waterweed, was chosen as an object for the experiments. Another test subject was one to two day old young fishes of freshwater pearlwort called Plumatella fungosa. It was adapted especially for biological testing of pollution of natural water. In further experiments, the role of laboratory test subjects was performed by other participants: solutions of chemical agents and quartz oscillators. Since the results of influence of the ordered medium did not change when the test subjects were change it can be concluded that there is a universally applicable, theoretically predicted and practically proven natural regularity. In turn, applied usage of this regularity gives a variety of new methodologies and technologies for regulation of state of natural and social processes and harmonization of this state.
In 1996, once the results of the theoretical and practical transdisciplinary research were adopted, by the initiative of the members of the principle interministreral conference held at the Federal Agency of medical, biological and extreme problems under the Ministry of Health Care Department and Medical Industry of Russian Federation, the new transdisciplinary approach was recommended for “practical usage as the alternative variant for fulfillment of research and other scientific works”.
In 1997 the Russian School of Transdisciplinarity formulated the basic principles of transdisciplinary construction of harmonic education. In 1998 the basic methods, built on these principles, affirmed their effectiveness by keeping students healthy and interested in new knowledge. Two-year experiment was held by the educational center “Perspective” (Moscow). The center was directed by N. Vinogradova, candidate of pedagogic science. The trainer was Shalva Amonashvili, doctor of pedagogic science, academician of Russian Academy of Education. The members of the working group were I. Kuminova, A. Dzhamborova, O. Shegai and Vladimir Mokiy, head of the group.
In 2000 under General Contract between Moscow State University of Civil Engineering and the Research Institute of structural physics (Moscow) the research work was held on the topic of “Monitoring and evaluation of technical state of the first set of living houses based on the principles of transdisciplinary approach”. A supervisor was the director of the Scientific Technological Center “Risk and safety of the buildings”, doctor of technological sciences, professor A. Tamrazyan. The members of the working group were M. Golota, A. Dzhamborova, O.Shegai, Vladimir Mokiy, head of the group.
In 2001 Doctor of Economics Mikhail Mokiy (Moscow State University of Management) published a study, called “Spatial and temporal factors in development of economical systems”. The study enclosed generalized results of long-term research of objective factors of development of economic systems of different complexity, executed with usage of transdisciplinary models of spatial, temporal and informational units of order. The author offered methodological principles of application of transdisciplinary approach to research of policyclicity and periodicity of development of economic systems and their endemicity.
In 2002 under State Contract #1.7.88/02 (the client was the Ministry of Labor and Social Development of Russia) another research project was held on the topic “Approbation of computer system of identification of individual calendar periods for employees of a higher risk group”. The research was based on the results of theoretical and practical examinations of application of transdisciplinary models of temporal and informational units of order in the field of preventive medicine. The State Contract was part of research of the Government program “LABOR PROTECTION 2000-2004”. The program was supervised by V. Kiselev, MD candidate, the chief specialist of the Federal Agency of medical and biological extreme problems by the Ministry of Health Care and Medical Industry of Russia. The members of the working group were A. Dzhamborova, O.Shegai and Vladimir Mokiy, head of the group.
Since transdisciplinarity-4 developed initially as independent scientific direction, it managed to have sufficient time to form all the concepts and gain appropriate content, which enabled to develop transdisciplinary methodology and transdisciplinary technologies for solution of complicated multifactorial problems in different branches of the science, such as: economics, environmental science, education, health care, engineering sciences and national security. Four presentations were carried out by Russian school of transdisciplinarity on big international conferences during 2001-2002. The following topics were covered:
- Vldimir Mokiy, «The essence of the Informological Varients of the Transdisciplinary Paradigms»,
- P. Romanov, «Transdiciplinary technologies in Education, Economics and Medicine».
- Symposium «Paradigms Lost and Paradigms Gained: Negotiating Interdisciplinary in 21st Centure» May 9-12, 2001, University of Calgary, Canada.
- Ì. Golota , V. Ìîkiy, «Transdisciplinary Aspect of the Sustainable Development Management Know-How».
The International Conference «EURO-ECO 2001: Co-operation of Decision-Makers, Scientists and Practitioners for the Promotion of Sustainable Development and European Integration». June 18-19, 2001, University of Mining and Metallurg, Krakow, Poland.
- V. Mokiy, P.Romanov, «Transdisciplinary Safety of «Global Brain Project».
International Conference «Global Brain», July 3-5, 2001, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
- V. Mokiy «About the effectiveness of the use of transdisciplinary approach to solving the problems of nature and society». The Australian National University, Australia. The forums «The Nature and Society Forum» (Dr. J. Schooneveldt), «The Human Ecology Forum». (Dr. Jacqui Russell), Canberra, Australia, May 12-15, 2002.
During 1996-2017 basic concepts and results of research of transdisciplinarity in different sciences and technology were repeatedly presented on big scientific conferences in Russia and abroad. A number of books on transdisciplinarity were published. At the same time some practical works on solution of specific problems in 10 federal Agencies of Russian Federation were carried out.
“Institute of Transdisciplinary Technologies” [www.anoitt.ru] was opened in 12 March 2007 as an autonomous non-commercial organization in order to generalize and retain the experience, which has been accumulated as a result of long-term transdisciplinary theoretical and practical research. The major goal of the Institute is further development of transdisciplinarity as an independent science and also, accumulation, development and introduction of solutions of complicated multifactorial problems with usage of methods and methodologies of transdisciplinary approach. Alike Santa Fe Institute (USA), the Institute of Transdisciplinary Technologies has a small (up to 10 people) active stuff of trained professional transdisciplinary specialists. In some cases the work on a solution of a specific problem is carried out on the base of research of the corresponding research institution and some temporary creative group with a required number of partakers is involved. Such form of resource management allows to teach monodisciplinary specialists transdisciplinary technologies and eliminate a period of “proving the truth” of scientific results, accumulated by spetialists of other scientific specializations.
During 27-year work on creation and practical usage of methodology of transdisciplinarity-4 it turned out that majority of developed transdisciplinary technologies and technical ideas, prepared for practical implementation have a “secondary purpose”. Therefore it was decided to reduce the amount of published presentations on certain topics to the open public.
By 2017 the most practical implementation was found in seven fields, such
(This trend develop scientists State University of Management (Moscow) under the supervision of Doctor of Economics Mikhail Mokiy, State University of Management).
Macro/micro economic levels (including the whole state economic system as well as various government and private sector institutions of primary, secondary and tertiary productions).
- the detection of probable timeframe periods of the world economic system’s predisposition to the industrial-economic crisis and short term inflation phases;
- the detection of probable timeframe periods of a states economic system’s predisposition to the general industrial-economic crisis and short term inflation phases;
- the detection of possibility, character and intensity of a probable negative world economy crisis influence on the development of a states economic system;
- the analysis and operative forecasting of the development of interstate economic affairs;
- the detection, analysis and estimation of general economic systems;
- the detection of indicators that could induce the deterioration of a states economic system’s condition;
- risk-analysis of current state economic development plans relating to possible force-major conditions;
- risk-analysis of investment and innovation projects relating to the possible force-major conditions;
- the development of preventative measure scenarios for industrial-financial crisis within a states economic system and etc.
- development and introduction of operative monitoring of an ecological state of a given region (utilising apparatus to analyse sectors of the monitoring system);
- detection of the territorial risk zones of natural and techno-genetic disasters such as fires, earthquakes, flooding, waterspouts, whirlwinds, sandstorms etc;
- detection of probable intensity of natural and techno-genetic catastrophes and ect;
- detection of probable timeframe periods of the occurrence of natural and techno- genetic catastrophes;
- study of origin and development of an ecological catastrophe within the three-dimensional territorial space;
- detection of the zones within the three-dimensional territorial space which assist the beginning of ecological catastrophe when their state's change;
- detection of physical, chemical, biological and other parameters and characteristics of ecological stability within a particular territory;
- development of preventative measure scenarios of natural and techno-genetic catastrophes within a particular region or city;
- development of basic scenarios to manage the ecological states of a particular region or city and ect.
welfare and health of population:
- development of individual reports (“Biological Passport”) to promote a higher level of safety during surgery and medical treatments of the population (utilising modern computer technologies). These reports include information on the special sensitivity periods of the individuals. Within these periods, over eighty percent of negative events, aggravations of chronic diseases, accidents and situations can occur. Acquisition of relevant information about these periods can help to dramatically increase the level of personal safety during medical procedures both in practical and preventative (prophylactic) medicine, whilst excluding possible medical intoxications, post-surgery and post-medical procedural complications as well as prevention of aggravation of chronic diseases;
- development of individual reports to promote the prevention of occupational diseases (using modern computer technologies);
- consulting and informational support within occupational health departments.
- development of concepts incorporating operative monitoring of welfare and public health systems within heavily populated centres and areas of potential ecological risk;
- determination of the origins of various human diseases like cancer; AIDS; diabetes; cardiovascular system diseases and disorders; mineral salt, protein, carbohydrate and fat’s deficiency etc;
- development of advanced medicines with unique therapeutic and preventative characteristics;
- development of the methods that increase the efficiency of current medical diagnosis and chemical medicines;
- development of the methods that eliminate toxic and negative side effects of medicines on the human body and etc.
education, architecture, professional sports, prevention of antisocial and terroristic threat. New plans and ideas for practical usage were offered to more than 20 fields.
Twenty seven-year-old history of the Russian school of transdisciplinarity justifies that the development of transdisciplinarity was based on the traditional way of science to unite requirements to a new principle of scientific study within specialized scientific discipline. Transdisciplinarity, being a scientific discipline was initially focused on provision of specialists with all the monodisciplinary knowledge, required for an object. One can easily classify disciplinary information according to transdisciplinary characteristics relying on the models of transdisciplinary system. In practice, such an approach is equivalent to the mechanism of formation of goals and functions of an object while solving complicated multifactorial problems. It is equivalent to programs and scenarios of the most predictable development, mechanisms of co-ordination (ordering) and interaction of a number of natural and/or artificial elements, which represent an object.
In its time quantum physics forced a conceptual and methodological “exit outside of the boundaries” of classical physics. The change focused on the micro-world. As a result, not only scientific knowledge was enriched, but the society obtained nuclear energy and nanotechnology. Transdisciplinarity also provides a conceptual and methodological “exit outside of the boundaries” of classic and natural science. But this way focuses on the opposite side: the macro-world. Consequently, it is reasonable to say the transdisciplinarity gives opportunities to enrich the present scientific knowledge and develop technologies to manage the macro and micro objects as it follows:
- regulation of the general state of objects of nature and society;
- regulation of the general state of people and a complex technological objects;
- creation of alternative sources of energy and materials with specific attributes;
- creation of unique technologies for long range communication
- creation of technologies and special equipment for collection and analysis of information, primarily the computers of the new generation and etc.